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亚搏网页登陆|英国人不愿意戴口罩?听听清华大学医学院教授怎么说
名称:亚搏网页登陆|英国人不愿意戴口罩?听听清华大学医学院教授怎么说
详细介绍

On January 25, the day after Wuhan was closed, I passed by the newly-built Beijing Daxing Airport and attended an international scientific conference and saw a surprising sight. Nearly 100% of people wear masks (including myself). Even in China, where the epidemic is severe, this is very unusual. After arriving in Europe, I couldn't find anyone wearing a mask.

1月25日,即武汉关闭后的第二天,我经过新建的北京大兴机场,参加了一次国际科学会议,看到了令人惊讶的景象。几乎100%的人戴着口罩(包括我自己)。即使在流行病严重的中国,这也是非常不寻常的。到达欧洲后,我找不到戴着口罩的人。

Three months later, even if more than 30 countries/regions, including Germany, require the public to wear masks outdoors, the British government has always insisted that there are not enough arguments to support such a move. The government will quickly decide whether it is necessary to wear a mask under the advice of the Emergency Scientific Advisory Group.

三个月后,即使包括德国在内的30多个国家/地区要求公众在户外佩戴口罩,英国政府也始终坚持没有足够的论据来支持这一举动。政府将在紧急科学咨询小组的建议下迅速决定是否需要戴口罩。

The report shows that the recommendations reached are compromised: they allow the public to choose to wear a scarf or cover their face instead of wearing a medical mask. Then why are there such differences on this issue?

该报告表明,所达成的建议受到了损害:它们使公众可以选择戴围巾或遮住脸而不戴医用口罩。那为什么在这个问题上有这样的分歧呢?

Most of us may ask: How can masks, especially masks made of cloth, protect us from the new coronavirus? However, the concept of "protection" ignores the main reason why more and more people around the world wear masks to cover their faces.

我们大多数人可能会问:口罩,尤其是用布制成的口罩如何保护我们免受新型冠状病毒的侵害?但是,“保护”的概念忽略了全世界越来越多的人戴着口罩遮住脸的主要原因。

Since February, data has shown that, unlike SARS (atypical pneumonia patients will be the most infectious a few days after the onset of severe symptoms), people infected with the new coronavirus will be infected before or when the symptoms appear (usually Very mild forms) have spread most viruses, and these viruses are infectious.

自2月以来,数据表明,与SARS(非典型肺炎患者在严重症状发作后几天会成为最具感染力的感染)不同,感染新冠状病毒的人会在症状出现之前或出现时被感染(通常是轻度感染) )已经传播了大多数病毒,并且这些病毒具有传染性。

This raises two questions: First, the work to contain the new coronavirus is orders of magnitude more difficult than the containment of SARS. Second, what is controversial is that the official recommendation of the World Health Organization and the British government is: only the symptomatic public and their relatives wear masks.

这就提出了两个问题:首先,遏制新的冠状病毒的工作比遏制SARS的难度要大几个数量级。其次,有争议的是,世界卫生组织和英国政府的官方建议是:只有有症状的公众及其亲属戴口罩。

In the field of infectious diseases, the practice of preventing patients from infecting others is called "controlling the source of infection." For respiratory infections, controlling the source of infection should include wearing a mask when not in isolation. The government advocates source control, so people with symptoms are advised to wear masks.

在传染病领域,防止患者感染他人的做法被称为“控制感染源”。对于呼吸道感染,控制感染源应包括在不孤立的情况下戴口罩。政府提倡源头控制,因此建议有症状的人戴口罩。

But what if only half of the people with symptoms are? After systematic testing, whether it is passengers on the Diamond Princess or women who are about to give birth in New York, the number of people who are positive for the virus but asymptomatic is about half of the total number of confirmed cases. (The range is 20-90%, but most people agree that the actual data is 40-60%)

但是,如果只有一半的有症状的人会怎样呢?经过系统的测试,无论是乘坐钻石公主的乘客还是即将在纽约分娩的妇女,对该病毒呈阳性但无症状的人数约为确诊病例总数的一半。 (范围为20-90%,但大多数人同意实际数据为40-60%)

So, can people who are completely asymptomatic can spread the new coronavirus? We know that even normal speech can spread droplets, and the use of masks can greatly reduce droplets. For a symptomatic person, whether he is infected with the new crown virus or the flu, normal breathing can also cause the spread of the virus, which can be stopped by wearing a mask. Although we are not sure how contagious asymptomatic patients are, there is evidence that approximately 40% of transmission cases come from asymptomatic infections.

那么,完全没有症状的人可以传播新的冠状病毒吗?我们知道,即使是正常的语音也可以散布飞沫,使用口罩可以大大减少飞沫。对于有症状的人,无论他是感染了新的冠状病毒还是流感,正常的呼吸也会导致病毒的传播,可以通过戴口罩阻止病毒的传播。尽管我们不确定无症状患亚搏网页登陆者的传染性,但有证据表明约40%的传播病例来自无症状感染。

So, what objections does the public have to wearing masks? There have been many debates on this issue, and the evidence for wearing masks is fragile and ambiguous. For doctors, the "gold standard" of evidence is a randomized controlled experiment (some people take drugs or intervene, some don't, depending on whether it is beneficial or risky).

那么,公众对戴口罩有什么异议呢?关于这个问题有很多争论,戴口罩的证据脆弱而模棱两可。对于医生来说,“黄金标准”是随机对照的实验(有些人服用药物或进行干预,有些人则不服用,取决于它是有益还是有风险)。

There have been some experiments with masks before, involving the prevention of influenza, and the results were disappointing (although most people who planned to wear masks did not actually wear them). It turns out that we are not afraid of catching the flu.

以前曾进行过一些口罩的实验,涉及预防流感,但结果令人失望(尽管大多数计划戴口罩的人实际上并未戴亚搏网页登陆口罩)。事实证明,我们不害怕感冒。

However, if people seek the same level of evidence for other measures strongly advocated by the government (such as hand washing), the research is also disappointing. For other suggestions (such as keeping a safe distance of two meters, or isolation), there is no experiment at all.

但是,如果人们为政府强烈倡导的其他措施(例如洗手)寻求相同水平的证据,则这项研究也将令人失望。对于其他建议(例如,保持两米的安全距离或隔离),根本没有任何实验。

Therefore, wearing masks seems to be different from other measures and receive different standards of treatment. Although there is no experimental data, "natural experiments" do show that there is at least a correlation between wearing a mask and reducing the spread of the new coronavirus. The city of Jena in Germany started to wear masks on March 31. There were no new infection records within eight days, while the surrounding cities continued to show an upward trend.

因此,戴口罩似乎与其他措施有所不同,并得到不同的治疗标准。尽管没有实验数据,但“自然实验”确实表明,戴口罩与减少新的冠状病毒的扩散之间至少存在关联。德国的耶拿市从3月31日开始戴口罩。八天之内没有新的感染记录,而周围的城市继续呈上升趋亚搏全站手机网页登陆势。

Other objections include: wearing a mask will increase other dangerous behaviors, such as a relaxed attitude after wearing a mask (similar to mandatory legislation for vehicle owners to wear seat belts, and people wearing seat belts will increase their dangerous driving behaviors), or being polluted The mask will increase infection. But in Hong Kong, the holding rate of masks has reached an astonishing 98%. There is no report on the harm caused by this practice. In fact, only four people have died of the new crown virus in Hong Kong since the outbreak.

其他反对意见包括:戴口罩会增加其他危险行为,例如戴口罩后放松的姿势(类似于强制性法规,要求车主系好安全带,戴安全带的人会增加危险的驾驶行为),或者口罩会增加感染。但是在香港,口罩的持有率达到了惊人的98%。没有关于这种做法造成危害的报告。事实上,自爆发以来,香港只有四人死于新的冠状病毒。

Perhaps the last objection is that masks are a scarce resource, and the public wearing masks will compete with medical institutions for resources. In this sense, the government may be stalling because of the lack of masks. This is a political and economic issue, not a scientific issue.

也许最后一个反对意见是,口罩是一种稀缺资源,而戴着口罩的公众将与医疗机构争夺资源。从这个意义上说,政府可能由于缺乏口罩而陷入停滞。这是政治和经济问题,而不是科学问题。

This can also explain the recent focus on cloth masks or other face masks: by promoting these things, there is no need to fight against the national medical service system. Moreover, the government recently cooperated with Rolls-Royce to produce ventilators. This partnership between the government and other industries can also ensure that high-quality masks are provided for everyone in the country.

这也可以解释最近对布面罩或其他面罩的关注:通过推广这些东西,无需与国家医疗服务系统作斗争。此外,政府最近与劳斯莱斯合作生产通风机。政府与其他行业之间的这种伙伴关系还可以确保为该国每个人提供高质量的口罩。

Because of the government's hesitation, we and our European neighbors are no longer the same. The British public may eventually become the mice of the "control experiment with masks." But do we really want this?

由于政府的犹豫,我们和我们的欧洲邻国不再相同。英国公众最终可能成为“戴口罩的对照实验”的老鼠。但是我们真的想要这个吗?

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